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1700 C.E. TO THE 






3[e\visb jStub\> ^ociet^. 







Text Book— Gkaetz, History of lh< /(■a\^,Wo\.. V 

James Wakeham & Co., Ltd., Printers, Kensington and Shepherd's Bush. 

\ 17 

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The period of history dealt with in this syllabus covers the last 
two hundred years. It will be found to possess an interest apart 
from that belonging to any other period of Jewish history, just 
because it reveals the various forces and movements that are immedi- 
ately accountable for the present conditions of Jewry throughout 
the world. It comprises a scries of momentous events, the most 
far-reaching of which was the transition of .Jewish history to its 
modern stage, signalised by the activity of Mendelssohn aad the 
occurrence of the French Revolution. 

The first half of the eighteenth century witnessed a condition 
of intellectual confusion and communal chaos. The spell of Sabbatai 
Zevi was spread throughout Europe. A succession of Pseudo- 
Messiahs — mercenary impostors or misguided mystics — roamed 
the Continent, deluding the populace and leaving strife and dis- 
appointment in their track. Even Rabbis were secret adherents 
of the mischievous heresy ; hence the " Amulet (Controversy " that 
raged between Emden and Eibeschiitz. The semi-Christian sect 
of Frank and the new Chassidic movement both had their rise in 
Poland, where the social and economic upheaval aggravated the 
spiritual unrest. 

The dawn of a new era came with the advent of Moses Mendels- 
solm, who performed the intellectual emancipation of his people by 
giving them a (xerman translation of the Bible, and showing that 
the practice of religious conformity could be combined with an 
acquisition of modern culture. His generation accepted the culture 
but forsook the religious conformity ; and Lessing's portrayal of the 
ideal Jew was followed by a march of the votaries of cultm-e to the 
baptismal font. Simultaneously with the intellectual ferment there 
went on a struggle for political emancipation. The French Revolu- 
tion inaugurated the civil equality of the Jews in France, but their 
brethren in Germany, Austria, England, had to work and wait for 
similar rights for another half-century, 

Mendelssohn's influence operated in two different directions, 
though both were probably unforeseen by the meek philosopher. 
The agitation for religious reform and the prosecution of scientific 
research Avere both inevitable results of intellectual emancipation. 
They were, moreover, closely connected, for the advocates of reform 
sought to justify their proposals by their historic conception of the 
development of Judaism. The annals of Jewish history and the 


literary treasures accumulated through the ages first began to be 
revealed in the days of Zunz, and succeeding scholars followed in his 
path with a similar zeal to vindicate the Jew by narrating his history. 
Not only was the Gentile world inspired with a certain respect, but 
the wavering Jew was filled with an historic consciousness that 
strengthened his faith. 

But it is impossible to generalise. During the last fifty years, 
in which the Jews have made the greatest progress, there has 
hovered over them the cloud of Anti-Semitism, which has not yet 
been dispelled ; and whatever meed of prosperity may be their lot 
in Western Europe, America, and the British Colonies, half of the 
Jewish people is still in bondage in Russia. Here we reach Jewish 
history in the making ; and though the historian may suggest a 
solution of the Jewish question, only political forces will achieve it. 

Note. — As an introduction to chapters vi. and vii. of Graetz, vol. v., 
read Dubnow's Jewish History, pp. l.j."]-l."57, and as an intro- 
duction to the remainder of the volume read pages l-jS-lof). 

In dealing with the nineteenth century, Dubnow's generali- 
sations cannot always be accepted. For example, on p. 141 he 
says of the German Jews : " If they renounced some of their 
religious and national traditions, it was by no means out of 
complaisance for their neighbours." But the apostasy of 
Borne, Heine, Gans, and others, had surely no other motive but 
to secure the complaisance of their neighbours. Again, in 
dealing with the Hebrew literature produced by the Jews of 
Russia, pp. 151-152, he does scant justice to its merits. What- 
ever value may attach to historical research, the creative 
imagination is the soul of literature, and it is this element that 
is conspicuous in the modern Hebrew literature of Russian 
Jewry. ^ 

1725, o.E. 

Graetz, vol. v., ch. vi. 

This chapter (which should more properly be entitled " General 
Demoralisation of Jewry ") presents a depressing spectacle of super- 
stitious folly and pseudo-Messianic imposture, which characterised 
most of the Jewish communities from Amsterdam to Constantinople 
not only during the first quarter of tlie ISth century but almost 
throughout the rest of the century. If one may speak of a mediaeval 
period in Jewish history, with an implication not of the persecution 

and fiuiiiticism outside the coimmiiiily but of the ignorance aud 
cliarlatanry within, tlien tlic hSth century well deserves the title. 
Even tliougli tlie Ufe and work of Moses Mendelssohn are comprised 
within this j)eriod, the predominant impression is nevertheless one 
of gloom. 

Amid the general intellectual decadence the Messianic heresy 
of Sabbatai Zevi stands conspicuous. A succession of adventurous 
impostors arose in various places, gave themselves out as the expected 
Messiah, and profited by the credulity of the masses. In Smyrna 
a])peared Bonafoux, who followed the example of his master by 
finally adopting Islam. In Tripoli arose Cardoso, who met his death 
by the hand of his nephew. From Hungary Mordecai of Eisenstadt 
set forth on his Messianic mission and transplanted the heresy to 
Poland. In Salonica Jacob Querido, brother of Sabbatai's widow, 
was palmed off as Sabbatai's son and worshipped as the embodiment 
of the two Messiahs of the Houses of Joseph and David. Then 
arose Jacob's son, Berechvah, whose followers, to the number of 
•I.OOO, apostatised from Judaism and formed a sect {Donmeh, a 
Turkish word for "apostates"), which lives on in Salonica to the 
present day. Another Sabbataian sect was created in Poland by 
Judah Chassid and Chayim Malach, who preached repentance and 
self-mortification, and were followed by a deluded multitude to 
Jerusalem, where Judah died, and the spell was broken. 

But the exploits of all these were exceeded by Nehemiah 
Chayon, a Cabbalistic adventurer born in Hebron, wdio travelled 
from Smyrna to Amsterdam and obtained support in almost every 
community that he visited. His escapade is all the more interesting 
as it shows that credulity was not limited to any particular section 
of Jewry : whether in Turkey, Italy, Bohemia, or Germany, honours 
were shown to him and money flowed into his pockets. He traded 
in amulets and on the superstition of the multitude ; he claimed to 
hold converse with Elijah, but secretly led a life of profligacy. He 
composed a blasphemous work on a Trinitarian doctrine as part of 
the Jewish faith, which he printed in Berlin with the aid of some 
wealthy dupes, and which he fortified with the sanction of the 
Venetian Rabbinate (ignorant of its contents) and wath a number of 
forged testimonials. His campaign of deception reached a cul- 
minating point in Amsterdam, where he plunged the Portuguese 
and the German communities intQ civil war, and ultimately brought 
about his own downfall. 

Chayon's staunchest supporter in .\msterdam was the Sephardic 
Haluim, Solomon Ayllon, who was likewise of Palestinean birth, and 

liad lived among a Sabbataian sect in Salonica in liis early years; 
Ayllon is another interesting character, as after various adventures 
he actually foisted himself on the Sephardic community in London, 
where he was appointed Haham in 1689, and retained office for ten 
years. Attacks were, indeed, made on his personal character as 
soon as his early history was discovered, but the Mahamad took his 
side. In Amsterdam, his opponents in the Chayon controversy 
were the Ashkenazic Eabbi, Zevi Ashkenazi, and Moses Chages, of 
Jerusalem, who played the part of a Grand Inquisitor in Jewry. 
It should be observed that in this strife the leaders of the Portuguese 
community were committed to support Chayon owing to the attitude 
of their spiritual chief, Ayllon. 

Notes : — 

This chapter illustrates the dictum that Jewish history, where 
it is not a record of persecutions and expulsions, is mainly concerned 
with the intellectual development of the people, though the present 
chapter marks a temporary arrest in that development. 

The mischief wrought by the various Messianic impostures was 
all the more serious, as not only was the purity of the Jewish faith 
defiled but its moral foundations were undermined. 

It is interesting to note that several of the Cabbalistic writings 
of Ayllon, Cardoso, and other authors of the time, are to be fouiid in 
manuscript form in English libraries (British Museum, Bodleian, 
&c.) and private collections. These writings reached London owing 
to their authors generally being " jnessengers " from Palestine, who 
travelled through Europe to obtain funds for the poor in the Holy 
Land, and included England within their canvassing campaign. 
The only known work left by Ayllon is in the manuscript collection 
of the Beth Hamidrash, St. James' Place, Aldgate. 

The name Ayllon is derived from a town of tliat name in the 
Spanish province of Segovia. 

#evi Ashkenazi, like his opponent Ayllon, also made a stay in 
Jjondon (1714 — 16), but refused the post of Haham offered to him 
by the Sephardic congregation. 

Jh commended Reading : — 

On the whole subject of the False Messiahs consult the article, 
Pseudo-Messiah in the Jewish Encydopci'dia; 


For further particulars of Ayllon's sojourn in London consult 
Dr. Gaster's " Memorial History of Bevis Marks Synagogue," 
pp. 22 — :J1, and 107— lil. His spelling Aijlion is characterised by 
the Jewish Encyclopcvdia as incorrect. Both these works contain 
a portrait of Ayllon. 

For a separate treatment of Chayon see the article in the Jewish 
Encydopcedia on Hayyun. It may here be noted that most of the 
names beginning with Ch will be found in the Encyclopaedia under 
// ; it is simply a difference of transliteration of the Hebrew letter 

An interesting account of the crypto-Jewish sect, the Donmeli 
(given in Graetz as Donmah), will be found in the Jewish Enci/c/o- 
pcedia. See also E. X. Adler's Jeivs in Many Lands, p. UCi. 

On Zevi Ashkenazi see art. in Jewish Encydopcedia, vol. ii. 
(note misprint 1705 for 1715. bottom of p. 203, left column), and 
Transactions of Jewish History Society iii., p. 102, sqq. 

Printer's Error- On p. 245 of Graetz (vol. v.), the word " pre- 
scriptions " should be " proscriptions." 

FEANK, 1727—1760, c.k 

Graetz, vol. v., ch. vii. 

'This chapter continues the story of the effects of the Pseudo- 
Messianic heresy. It deals with four important figures, each coming 
from. a different centre and possessed of a different individuality, 
but all concerned in one way or another with the Sabbataian cult. 
The Italian Luzzatto, the Galician Eibeschiitz, the German Emden. 
and the Polish Frank, have each stamped their names on the pages 
of Jewish history, but only in the case of one — the first — is there 
a modicum of true glory attaching to it. 

Luzzatto (1707 — 1747) was a poet of genius, and his literary 
achievements are of greater importance for Hebrew literature than 
his religio-mystical activity is for Jewish history in general. He 
was probably the most honest of the false Messiahs ; he sought no 
gain for himself, nor did he plunge others into misery. The poetical 
spirit often soars into the mystical region ; in his case there were 
already a mystical atmosphere and mystical rites around him, so 
that his transition was precipitated. Both in regard to technique 
and to loftiness of style and subject, his Hebrew prosody is of the 
highest order. With his Migdal Oz (Tower of Strength), an alle- 
gorical drama, he broke away from the traditions of mediaeval 

poetry ; and liis greatest work, Layesharim Tehilla (Praise to the 
Righteous, 1743), definitely opens the Renaissance of Hebrew Htera- 
ture, which has reached its highest development in Russia at the 
present day. 

The names of Eibeschiitz (1690 — 17(54) and Emden will always 
be associated owing to the fierce controversy betv/een them about 
the Sabbataian amulet. It is difficult to acquit Eibeschiitz of the 
suspicion that he was responsible for the heretical amulets, though 
impartial historians are inclined to give him the benefit of the doubt. 
His great influence as a Rabbinical authority procured him extensive 
support, and tended to weaken the charges brought against him. 
He was a man of tireless ambition, and the evidence shows him 
possessed of little scruple in securing Ids vindication. The eulogy 
penned by the apostate, Charles Antony, even if not dictated by 
Eibeschiitz, was inspired by him. and — to say the least — it alienates 
all sympathy from liim. 

Jacob Emden Ashkenazi (1()',)8 — 177()) was largely actuated 
by personal hostility, however sincere his zeal for the true faith. 
He inherited the spirit of combativeness from his father, Zevi 
Ashkenazi, who was the antagonist of Ay lion in Amsterdam earlier 
in the century. He was (|uick-tempered and jealous, and quarrelled 
with almost all his contemporaries, thougli in this he perhaps only 
showed the irritability of most authors, for he was a verv prolific 
writer, and composed a number of Rabbinical and polemical works. 

Jacob Frank (J72<) — 171)1) carried the Pseudo-Messianic heresy 
to its worst extremes, and was undoubtedly a most unscrupulous 
adventurer. The sect that he founded was at first known as the 
" Zoharites " (so called after the Cabbalistic woik, the Zohar), but 
they afterwards adopted the name of Frankists. Their antagonism 
to the Talmud was not only shown in the two public disputations 
(1757 and 1759) held in the Lemberg Cathedral, but more notoriously 
in their licentious practices. Their adoption of Christianity was 
altogether insincere, for even after baptism they preserved their 
separateness and continued to intermarry among themselves. 
Frank's easy conversion from his own heresy to diristianity, and 
from Christianity to Islam, is sufficient proof of his utter lack of 
religious principle. Unfortunately, his sect was not only without 
any religious principle, but even without any moral princi])le. Its 
origin was due as much to the social and economic uplieaval in 
Polish Jewry as to the degeneration of the Messianic movement of 
Subbatai Zevi into religious mvsticism. 

Notes : — 

Safed, to wlu'ch Luzzatto ultimately retired, was an important 
centre of Jewish mystics from the JHth century. 

In the Amulet Controversy it should be noted that there was 
no objection raised to the amulets as such, but only to the heretical 
prayer they contained. A copy of an amulet prepared by Eibes- 
chiltz will be found in the Jewish Enq/clopcedin (vol. v., art. Eybes- 
chiitz). which takes an impartial view of the controversy. 

Jacob Ashkenazi derived his name of Emden from the Prussian 
maritime town of Emden in the province of Hanover, where he held 
the post of Rabbi for five years (172i^ — M-l-i). 

It should be observed that both in the Eibeschiitz and the 
Frank affairs the civil authorities were dragged in, — an extreme 
measure that generally aggravates the seriousness of the case. So 
far as Eibeschiitz was concerned, even before he came into collision 
with Emden he inflicted a great wrong on the Jews of Bohemia and 
Moravia, as he was ultimately responsible (however unintentionall}') 
for the decree of banishment issued against them (1744). 

Note the parallelism between the controversy of Emden and 
Eibeschiitz in one generation and that of Ashkenazi and Ayllon in 
the preceding generation. 

The Bodleian Library contains a commentary on Lamentations 
and some homilies on the Pentateuch by Eibeschiitz in manuscript. 

Jacob (or Jankev) Leibovicz received the name of Franlc 
owing to his long sojourn in Turkey, that name usually being given 
in the Orient to a European. 

Note the part afterwards played by Frank's beautiful daughter, 
Eve, in the activity of the sect ; a frequent phenomenon when 
fanatical sectarianism degenerates into a mystic cult. On the 
death of her father, Eve became " holy mistress " and leader of the 
sect; she died neglected in ISKi. 

" The sect disappeared without leaving any traces in Judaism 
because it had no positive religious-ethical foundation. Attempts 
to formulate the teachings of Frank upon the basis of a collection 
of his utterances preserved in manuscript have so far failed. There 
is no doubt, however, that Frankism consisted in a negation of the 
religious as well as of the ethical discipline of Judaism. {Jftvisk 
Encyclopa'dia, v. 477)." 

Recommended Reading/ : — 

The Jewish Encyclopccdia can be consulted with advantage for 
its articles on Luzzatto, Emden, Eibeschiitz (given as Eyheschiitz), 
and Frank. Both portraits and autographs are given of Eibeschiitz 
and his antagonist. 

The article on " Amulet " should also be read ; it is illustrated 
by an interesting plate showing specimens of different kinds of 

III.— THE MENDELSSOHN EPOCH, 1750—1786, c.k. 

Graetz, vol. v., ch. viii. 

Moses Mendelssohn (1729 — 178()) is the greatest Jewish figure 
in the 18th century, and one of the worthies of general Jewish 
liistory. His personality and his writings acted as a powerful stimu- 
lus to the intellectual development of Jewry, not only in his own 
country but throughout the greater part of Europe. It may even 
be said that his influence was greater after his death than during 
his life, for his teachings continued to mould the minds of Jews 
throughout the 19th century, and are dominant now in every 
enlightened community in Europe and America. Mendelssohn 
opened a new epoch in Jewish history by his translation of the 
Pentateuch ; this liberated the Jewish mind that had too long been 
fettered by the formalism of tlie Talmud, and prepared the way 
towards participation in general culture. 

Mendelssohn's activity was twofold : he was not only a leader 
of thought within his own community, but also acted as an expositor 
of Judaism to the Christian world. His literary and phih)sophical 
attainments, his intercourse with the culured circles of Berlin, and 
his friendship with Lessing, all caused the highest value to be attached 
by the Gentile world to whatever he wrote. The essential factor in 
his greatness, however, was himself. A Jew who had surpassed 
Kant in philosophical lucidity and inspired Lessing to write his 
drama of " Nathan the Wise," was of no ordinary mettle. Spiritually 
Mendelssohn was heir of Maimonides, and like most of the heroes of 
Jewish history he achieved his victories by the pen, not by the 
sword. Theologian and philosopher by intellectual bent, there is 
a moral grandeur in his character which shines out in all the 
controversies that his activity produced. 

Mendelssohn not only brouglit about the intellectual emanci- 
pation of Jewry, but also contributed towards its political emanci- 

pation, through the instrumentality of liis friend. Christian William 
I)()hm, wlio composed an elaborate defence of the Jews, and pleaded 
that civil rights should be granted to them (2 vols., 17^1). 

In his exposition of Judaism Mendelssohn always insisted that 
its principles " are not only comprehensible to the human mind, 
but also demonstrable by human powers." He emphasised the 
fact that Judaism is more a religion of conduct than of creed, and 
that it fully permits liberty of conscience and of thought. However 
salutary and even necessary his teachings appeared at first, they led 
to disastrous consequences very soon after his death (the apostasy of 
his daughters and of many cultured Jews) and are always appealed 
to as the sanction of the advocates of assimilation. There is a 
bitter truth in Graetz's remark that Mendelssohn and Wessely 
'' who had felt so much at ease in the old structure [of Judaism], 
and wished only to see it cleansed here and there from cobw^ebs and 
the fungus with which it was overgrowm, contributed to sap its 

Notes : — 

This chapter will doubtless be found too long for a single reading, 
but as it deals with a complete epoch it would hardly be expedient 
to divide it in this syllabus. It may be found convenient, however, 
to make a break at p. 355, where the account of the early stages of 
political emancipation begins. This account seems a digression at 
first sight, but its pertinence becomes evident on subsequent reading. 

Mendelssohn is sometimes called Moses Dessau, after the place 
of his birth. 

It should be remembered that Mendelssohn never occupied an 
official position in the Jewish community of Berlin. In 1750 he 
was engaged by a rich silk manufacturer, Isaac Bernhard, as tutor 
to his children ; in 1754 he became his book-keeper, then his repre- 
sentative, and finally his partner. 

The first period (1755 — 1770) of his activity was devoted to 
writing on philosophy, ;esthetics, and criticism ; his contributions 
to German criticism are important, and he directly influenced the 
Laokoon of Lessing. After an interval for the restoration of his 
health began his second period (1774 — 1786), which was devoted 
almost entirely to Jewish interests — political and intellectual 


The following is a fairly complete clironological list of his 
chief works : — 

1755 : PJiilosopkical Conversations. Pope, a Metaphysician 
(written jointly with Lessing). Letters on the Emotions 
(aesthetic criticism). 

1763 : On the Evidence of the Metaphysical Sciences (Prize 
Essay, Berlin Academy of Sciences). 

1767 : Phcedo, or the Immortality of the Soul : chief philo- 
sophical work, procured the author the titles of " the 
German Plato " and " the German Socrates." 

1770 : Epistle to Lavater (refuting Bonnet's work on Christianity). 

1780 : German translation of Genesis. 

1783 : German translation of Pentateuch and Psalms. 

Jerusalem, on " Ecclesiastical Authority and Judaism " 
(Eng. trans, by M. Samuels, London, 1838) : in this 
work M. lays down the proposition that Judaism, 
in contradistinction to Christianity, has " no 
dogma whose acceptance is necessary for salvation." 

1785 : Morgenstunden — Lectures on the Existence of God. 

Besides his friendship with Lessing, Mendelssohn was also in 
close association with Nicolai, editor of literary reviews to which 
he contributed. Lessing's influence on Jewry was probably 
greater than that on the German world ; his dramatic career 
began with his play of Die Juden (1749) and ended with his 
masterpiece of Nathan der Weise (1779). 

Wessely is of importance for the Renaissance of Hebrew 
literature ; his name will be met with again in ch. x. 

Mendelssohn left three sons and three daughters : the latter 
adopted Christianity after their father's death. The famous com- 
poser, Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, was a grandson of the philo- 

Recommended Reading : — 

For a dispassionate account of Mendelssohn's life and work see 
the article in the Jewish Encyclopcpdia. 

On his religious philosophy, see Dr. M. Friedl inder, The Jeioish 
Religion, pp. 16 — 18, 35 ; Rev. M. Joseph, Judaism as Creed and 
Life, p. 48, 94 n, etc. ; S. Schechter, Studies in Judaism (essay on 
" Dogmas of Judaism "). The article on " The Mendelssohnian 


Programme," by Prof. Max L. Margolis, in Jeio. Quart. Rev., April, 
1905 (xvii., p. 531), will also be found of interest. 

On M.'s place in the intellectual development of Jewry, see 
essay on " Jewish Philosophy of Religion " in Dr. 8. A. Hirscli's 
Book of Essays (p. 184). 

On the exegetic school founded by Mendelssohn, see art. on 
" Biurists " (commentators) in Jewish Encyclopaidia. See also 
I. Abrahams, Chapters on Jewish Literature, pp. 253 — 260, and 
Karpeles, Jewish Literature and Other Essays, p. 293. 

Read also " Maimon the Fool and Nathan the Wise " in Zang- 
will's Dreamers of the Ghetto, and the essay in Lady Magnus' Jewish 
Portraits; Lessing's Nathan the Wise should certainly be read, and 
the origin and results of its production studied. 

On the Jewish Naturalisation Bill of 1753 in England, see 
Picciotto's Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History, and the art. on 
" England " in Jewish Encyclopaedia. 

IV.— THE NEW CHASSIDISM, 17r,0-1786, c.e. 
Graetz, vol. v., ch. ix. 

This chapter continues the story of the mystical movement as 
left off in ch. vii. Henceforth the movement takes a new form and 
is free from the morally objectionable practices attaching to the 
Pseudo-Messianic outbursts. The founder of the sect of Chassidim, 
Israel of Miedziboz (c. 1698 — 1759), was known as the Baal Shem 
(Master of the Name), a designation given to " certain people who 
were supposed to work miracles through the name of God." He 
wrote amulets and effected cures by herbs, though he refrained 
from the quackery of his fellow-craftsmen. He had a large following 
of the lower classes in Podolia and Volhynia ; instituted religious 
ablutions and the wearing of white garments ; and indulged in 
prophetic visions and gesticulation in prayer. There was an obvious 
antagonism between Chassidism and the Talmud, though its founder 
actually sided with the latter. The excitement brought on by the 
conversion of the Frankists to Christianity hastened the death of 
Israel Besht. 

His successor, Beer (or Baer), of Mizricz (Meseritz ; 1700 — 1772), 
was the most important propagator of Chassidism. He was known 
as the Zaddik, a combination of saint and wizard, and he claimed 
to be a representative of (Jod. He was a Talmudical authority and 
an artful thaumaturgist ; his pretended omniscience was sustained 


through a band of industrious spies ; and he demanded confession 
and tribute from his followers. He held a weekly court on the 
Sabbath, and his retinue contained many earnest as well as worth- 
less men. He adopted the prayer-book of Isaac Lurya, the chief 
Cabbalist, and appointed apostles to spread his teachings. 

The progress of the movement was favoured by the dissolution 
of the Jewish Synod of the " Four Countries " and the internal 
political unrest in Poland. The first violent attack upon it was 
made by Elijah, the Gaon of Wilna (1720—1797), who launched a 
ban against the sectarians on the formation of a circle in Wilna 
(1772). On the death of Beer, the Chassidim broke up into groups, 
each of which appointed its leader or Rebhe, whilst at the head of 
the entire sect there continued to be the Zaddik. In 1781 another 
ban was issued against the Chassidim, and their writings were burnt 
in Cracow and Brody. 

Notes : — 

Israel Besht is an interesting figure in modern Jewish legend. 
The name Besht is formed from the initials (Baal Shem-Tob^= 
Master of the Good Name). The term Baal Shem first arose, about 
1500, among the German-Polish Jews when they became acquainted 
with the practical Cabbala of Lurya. Originally the Baal Shem 
was applied to those considered great saints, but two centuries later 
it had developed into a profession — a combination of quack-doctor 
and Cabbalist. 

Note that Besht, in opposition to Lurya's Cabbala, fought 
against asceticism and insisted on joy in prayer. The term Hithla- 
habut (p. 402), rendered " inspiration," literally means " self- 
en kindlement," i.e., ecstatic ardour ; it is a Hithpael form from 
lahab = flame. 

The term Mitnagdim is a HUhpael form from neged = 
" opposite " ; it literally means " protestants." Tliis term 
is still extant in Eussian Jewry, being used to differentiate the 
general body from the Chassidim, who have even transplanted 
their prayer-houses and ritual to Western Europe and America. 
The word Rehbe (p. 410) is, of course, nothing but a vocal corruption 
of Rabbi (= my master, teacher). 

" It may be said of Chasidism that, with the exception of Jesus 
and the Juda?o-Cl)ristians, there is no other Jewish sect in which 
the founder is as important as his doctrines {Jewish Enci/clnpcedia, 
ii., aS5)." 


Kote (p. -J-OH) Graetz's explanation how it was that Tahuudists 
wen; driven into the Chassidic ranks. His remark (p. 418) that the 
Chassidim " represented a just principle, that of opposing the 
excesses of Talmudism," is hardly tenable, since excesses of one kind 
are not to be opposed by excesses of another kind, but by the exercise 
of reason. 

Recommended Reading : — 

Schechter's essay on the Chassidim in his Studica in Judaism 
should be read by all who desire a tliorough understanding of the 
subject. This should be supplemented by the articles in the Jeivish 
Encj/clopcvdia, ii., on " Baal Shem," " Israel Baal Shem-Tob." and 
" Baer of Meseritz." 

Zangwill's imaginative study of " The Master of the Name," 
in his Dreamers of the Ghetto, will help to a vivid appreciation of 
the character. 

On the Chassidim in modern Jerusalem, see E. N. Adler's Jews 
in Many Lands, pp. 50 — 5'). 

On the Gaon Elijah of Wilna, see Schechter's essay in his Studies 
in Judaism. 

For an account of the exploits of a Baal Shem in England sec 
the article on " Falk, Hayyim Samuel Jacob," by the Rev. Dr. 
Herman Adler, in Jewish Encyclopcsdia, v. o31. 

V.-THE VOTARIES OF CULTURE, 1786—1791, c.e. 

Graetz, vol. v., ch. x. 

The heading here given comprises the Meassefim and the 
Judseo-Christian Salon. The chapter may be divided into three 
distinct parts, though they are all closely related to one another. 
First, we have the founding of the Hebrew journal Meassef (Gatherer, 
1783), which disseminated modern culture ; then the activity of the 
three philosophers. Herz, Maimon, and Bendavid ; and lastly, the 
creation of literary salons by Jewish women with deplorable con- 

The Hebrew writers purified the ancient language of Rabbinical 
forms of expression, and endeavoured to restore to it the classical 
cliaracter of the Bible. They were all animated by a striving for 
culture, coming under the immediate influence of Mendelssohn ; 
and the movement founded in Germany spread to Holland, France, 


and Italy. Tlie result was a prolific literature iu polished Hebrew, 
both prose and verse, but the writers were rather skilled versifiers 
than true poets. The stimulus was not religious enthusiasm, but 

The three philosophers, Marcus Herz (1747 — 1803), Solomon 
Maimon (1753—1800), and Lazarus Bendavid (1762—1832), were 
all disciples of Kant, and helped as much as other German thinkers 
at the end of the 18th century to spread the Kantian philosophy. 
Maimon was the most interesting character of the trio, though he 
did not deliver public lectures like the others. Herz was the most 
prolific author, in addition to which he was a successful physician, 
Bendavid Avas of a retiring disposition, and was nicknamed " The 
Modern Diogenes." Heine called him " a sage after the pattern of 

The salon opened by Henriette Herz precipitated the first 
disastrous results that followed from Mendelssohn's advocacy of 
modern culture. The eagerness with which Christians of the highest 
rank frequented this and other salons was due partly to the personal 
(harms of the Jewish women and partly to their intellectual brilliance. 
But the apostasy and even immorality to which this intimate inter- 
course ultimately led, proved that there was neither Judaism nor 
Christianity in these literary circles, but elemental Paganism. The 
saddest feature in this moral downfall was the part played by 
Mendelssohn's daugliters, Dorothea and Henriette. 

To apportion any blame to the meek philosopher for the conse- 
quences of his teaching is difficult, as he could hardly have foreseen 
them ; though such lack of prevision certainly detracts from the 
value of his philosophy. He advocated " enlightenment," but also 
expounded the virtues of Judaism and exposed the falsities of 
Christianity. His generation adopted the " enlightenment " and 
were blinded by the flattery of Christian society to the verities of 
the Jewish faith. The failure of his system proves its incoraplete- 
iiess : philosophical proofs of religion are only for the study and 
require supplementing. In an age of reason he should have 
strengthened the historic consciousness of the Jew, but like his 
spiritual predecessor, Maimonides, he held history in low esteem. 

Notes : — 

The two most important figures in the early history of modern 
Hebrew literature are Wessely (1725 — 1805), author of the Mosaid, 
an epic on the Exodus, and Mcndes (1713 — 1792), whose best work 
was an adaptation of Racine's Athcdie. It should be observed that 


the predominant tone in modern Hebrew literature is not religious, 
but secular. 

Maimon derived his name from Maimonides, whose " Guide to 
the Perplexed " brought about his intellectual awakening. He 
acquired fame through his Atitobiographi/, of which there is an 
English translation (by J. Clark Murray, 1888. Alexander Gardner, 
Paisley). The copy in Dr. Williams' Library, Gordon Square, 
belonged to George Eliot, and contains marginal notes in her own 

Bendavid was not so unimportant in his day as Graetz makes 
him appear. He was a radical Bible critic, and pleaded for the 
abolition of ceremonial laws. 

Henriette Herz was not only a striking beauty but a remarkable 
Linguist. Among her friends were Schiller, Jean Paul Richter, 
Mirabeau, Riickert, and Niebilhr. A sympathetic (if not partial) 
presentment of her life is given by Miss Henrietta Szold in the 
Jewish Encydopcedia (vi., -jiWi), which also contains her portrait. 

The influence of French literature and German Romanticism 
on the Judseo-Christian salon simply proves how little serious hold 
Judaism had on its Jewish members. The latter lacked both the 
faith and philosophy of Mendelssohn, and by their conduct actually 
disy)roved his contentions. The epidemic of apostasy with which 
the 18th century ends in Germany is a tragic epilogue to Nathan 
the Wise. 

David Friedlander played an important part in the reformation 
of Jewish education in Berlin. The effect of his labours, however, 
was to transform Jewish into non-Jewish education ; and in his 
endeavours to secure political emancipation for his co-religionists 
he showed an utter lack of religious principle. 

Recommended Reading : — 

Besides the article on Henriette Herz (already referred to), 
those on Dorothea and Henriette Mendelssohn, Rahel Levin, Marcus 
Herz, Lazarus Bendavid, and David Friedlander, should be read in 
the Jewish Encydopcedia. 

On the subject of Jewish emancipation in Germany, see the 
article by the Rev. Dr. A. Wolf in the Jewish Literary Annual for 


Solomon Maiinon's Autohior/raphy will be found very Interesting. 
He is pictured to the life in Zangwill's Dreamers of the Ghetto (" Mai- 
mon the Fool and Nathan the Wise "). 

On the subject of Jewish education see Jeivish EncydopcBdia, 
v., 47. 

PATION OF THE JEWS, 1791—1805. 

Graetz, vol. v., ch. xi. 

In this chapter we have the story of the attainment of Jewish 
emancipation in France and Holland, of the continued struggle for 
civil rights in Germany, and of an attempt to improve the situation 
in Russia. 

The French Revolution will always form a landmark in Jewish 
history, for it was by its agency that the political emancipation of 
the Jews in Europe first became a fact. Its work was, of course, 
restricted to granting civil rights to the Jews in France ; but its 
example was soon followed by Holland, and its influence was even 
felt in other countries. Count Mirabeau and Abbe Gregoire were 
the chief French advocates of Jewish rights ; the most prominent 
champion of his own people was Cerf Berr, the Jewish army con- 
tractor of Alsace. 

The different stages in the struggle for emancipation in France 
were as follows : — 

1781 : Abolition of poll-tax and freedom of domicile decreed 
by Louis XVI. 

1781) : Freedom of religion decreed. 

17'J0 : Civil rights granted to Portuguese Jews of Avignon by 
National Assembly. Abolition of all special taxes on 
Jews of Alsace. 

17'Jl : Civil rights granted to all Jews in France by National 

The struggle was short and decisive ; its success would have 
come even earlier, had it not been for the strong anti- Jewish preju- 
dice in Alsace. As in the early stages Cerf Berr, so in the final stages 
Berr Isaac Berr rendered doughty service to the Jewish cause. In 
the Reign of Terror the Jews were subjected to much suffering, yet 
they fought in the Army of the Re})ublic, atid many fell on the 


Tn Holland civil rights were granted to the Jews in 17*,M). with 
scarce a struggle. On the contrary, the lay and spiritual leaders of 
the Amsterdam community were originally opposed to political 
emancipation, fearing it might prove injurious to religious con- 
formity. Within two years (17i)8) a Jew, Isaac da Costa Atias, had 
become President of the Batavian National Assembly. 

But in Germany the struggle was unavailing. The poet Goethe 
and the philosopher Fichte Avere both opposed to Jewish emancipa- 
tion. There was an outbreak of anti-Jewish pamphlets, and the 
proposal was actually made to revive the obnoxious badge. The 
most harassing grievance was the poll-tax. which Wolf? Breidenbach 
succeeded in getting abolished in the Rhineland and Bavaria. 

In Russia Alexander I. (1804) exempted Jewish manufacturers, 
artisans, farmers, and university men, from restrictive laws ; but 
inflicted a hardship on Jewish villagers in compelling them to 
migrate to the towns. 

Notes : — 

The Jews of France soon proved their patriotism by serving in 
the National Guard in Paris, Bordeaux, &c. To contribute to the 
Republican War fund, candelabra of synagogues were sold. 

The antipathy of the Sephardic to the Ashkenazic Jews in the 
emancipation struggle was a very unpleasant feature, especially 
as the former actually disparaged their co-religionists before the 
National Assembly. 

Note (p. 4U4) the dignified act of the French Government in 
securing for its Jewish subjects exemption from the poll-tax when 
travelling in Germany. 

.Had Napoleon's promise of conquering Palestine and restoring 
t to' the Jewish people been realised, the Jewish question would 
now have a different complexion. 

Holland was the first country in which Jews were appointed to 
public positions. 

The " national instinctive German hatred of the Jew," of which 
Gra .tz says that Fichte may be regarded as " the father and apostle," 
is now known by the unfortunately familiar name of Anti-Semitism. 

AVxander I.'s decree compelling Jewish villagers to remove to 
the D„ns was repeated by the late Tsar, Alexander III., and is 
strictly enforced, resulting in the congested population of the Pale 
of Settlement. 


Recommended Reading : — 

An excellent little book on the French Revolution is that of 
Mrs. B. M. Gardiner in the " Epochs of Modern History " series 

There is no general article on political emancipation in the 
Jewish Encyclopcedia ; the articles on the respective countries 
(France, Holland, Germany, &c.) must therefore be consulted. 


Graetz, vol. v., ch. xii. 

This chapter deals with two distinct subjects : (1) the Jewish 
Synhedrion in France, and (2) the continued struggle for emancipa- 
tion in German-speaking countries. In both sections the figure of 
Napoleon is dominant. 

(1) The civil equality of the Jews granted by the National 
Assembly was constantly threatened by the Jew-haters of Alsace. 
The peasants of the province, impoverished by the Revolution, 
borrowed money from Jewish money-lenders ; and disputes arising 
about repayment, a general agitation against the Jews was fomented, 
in which the guild-merchants and religious reactionaries took part. 
Napoleon, being petitioned to abrogate Jewisli rights, submitted 
the question to his State Council and then convened an Assembly of 
Jewish Notables to dehberate on the matter, meanwhile revoking 
the civil equality of the Jewish usurers in North France. 

The object of the Assembly was to prove the compatibility of 
Judaism with citizenship, to vindicate the Jewish character, and to 
remedy economic evils in Jewry. Abraham Furtado (of Marrano 
descent) presided over the ill deputies, whose first sitting took 
place July 25th, 1806, in Paris. To the 12 questions submitted by 
the Imperial Commissioners (dealing chiefly with patriotism, inter- 
marriage, and usury) replies were drawn up under the direction of 
David Sinzheim, Rabbi of Strasburg. So pleased was Napoleon 
with the result, that he convened a Jewish Synhedrion (based on 
the model of Temple times) to carry into effect the decisions of the 
Assembly. The Synhedrion met on February 0th, 1807, and soon 
discharged its labours under the presidency of Sinzheim. 

The sequel to tliesc imposing gatherings, which had made the 
whole of Europe agog with (!xcitement, was an anti-climax. After 
inspiring the Jews with great hope. Napoleon issued (1808) a law 
restricting their commercial frceduui, thus actually going back 


upon the famous decree of 1791. A storm of protest arose, and 
finally only the German-speaking Jews (in Alsace) had to suffer a 
temporary suspension of their commercial freedom. 

(2) There was no uniformity with regard to Jewish emancipa- 
tion in German-speaking countries. In the new kingdom of West- 
phalia (under Jerome, Napoleon's brother) complete civil equality 
was granted to the Jews (1808), and Israel Jacobson convened a 
Consistory of 22 Notables in Cassel, over which he presided. Duke 
Charles of Baden was the first German prince to give the Jews a 
restricted amount of liberty. In the Duchy of Frankfort the Jews 
bought their civil equality for 440,000 florins, to be paid in instal- 
ments (1811). The Hanseatic Towns (Hamburg, Liibeck. Bremen) 
granted civil rights under French pressure (1811.). In Prussia 
Frederick William III. first abolished the system of " protected 
Jews," and then (1812) conceded complete civil equality, but 
excluded Jews from all offices in the State service. In Bavaria and 
Austria no rights were granted, and Jews who entered Vienna had 
to submit to a new poll-tax. In Saxony only a few privileged Jews 
were allowed in Dresden and Leipzig ; they were heavily taxed and 
forbidden to build a synagogue. 

Notes : — 

The decision of the Paris kSynhedrion on intermarriage was as 
follows : " Marriages between Israelites and Christians when con- 
cluded in accordance with the civil code are valid, and though they 
cannot be solemnized by the religious rites of Judaism, they should 
not be subject to the ban." Graetz rightly calls this reply to 
Napoleon's question evasive (p. 529), since Napoleon wanted to 
know the Jewish law on the subject (not the civil law or the personal 
opinion of the delegates), and intermarriage is certainly forbidden 
by Jewish law. The term " intermarriage " does not apply to the 
union between a member of the Jewish faith and a convert, which, 
like all Jewish marriages, must be solemnised with religious rites. 

In order to give legal effect to the principles laid down by the 
Synhedrion, Napoleon, by special decree (March 17th, 1808) insti- 
tuted the system of consistories — ecclesiastical courts, with a central 
consistory in Paris — which are in force to the present day. 

Milman suggests that Napoleon had a political motive in con- 
vening the Synhedrion, the hope of turning to his own advantage 
" the wide-extended and rapid correspondence of the Jews through- 
out the world .... and the -secret ramifications of their 
trade." But there arc no grounds for such a presumption. 


On p. 515 Graetz says that only two Rabbis were elected to the 
Assembly of Notables ; on p. 521 he speaks of " the four most 
eminent Eabbis." The Assembly included several Rabbis. 

Note the misprint " Russia" for "Prussia" in the heading on 
p. 541. The same misprint occurs in the list of contents at the 
beginning of the chapter, p. 504. 

Recommended Reading : — 

For further details about the Paris Synhedrion see the articles 
in the Jeiviah Encydopadia on " Sanhedrin (French)," " Consistory," 
and " Intermarriage." 

Mr. Israel Abrahams, in his Jewish Life in the Middle Aqes 
(p.24i)),gives a list of the occupations of the delegates to the Assembly 
in 180G. 

See also Jeivish Quarterly Review xv., pp. 4! 1.3 — 8 (April, liiO.j), 
part of article on " The Beginnings of the Reform Movement in 
Judaism," by the Rev. Dr. D. Philipson. 

Milman (who is not generally reliable, though always interesting) 
gives the " Twelve Questions " seriatim and the corresponding 
replies (History of the Jews, Book xxviii.). 


(xraetz, vol. v., cli. xiii. ' 

Napoleon's downfall resulted in a serious reaction against the 
tolerance and emancipation that the Jews had begun to enjoy. 
Despite the sacrifices they had made by fighting in the wars for the 
liberation of Germany, they were deprived of their hard-won civil 
equality in most of the important cities. In France alone was 
Jewish liberty left untrammelled. A new foe that arose against 
the Jews was Christian Germanism — the spirit that wished to 
identify the State and nation with the religion, and to suppress all 
heterodox elements. The most violent exponent of this Chauvinistic 
sj)irit was Frederick Riihs, professor of history at the Berlin ITni- 
versity, who advocated in a pamphlet the conversion of the Jews 
and, in the meanwhile, the restoration of the badge and special 

At the Congress of Vienna (1814 — 15), at which the various 
German States were re];)rcsented, promises were made to improve 
the Jewish condition, but they did not reach fulfilment. Prussia 


and Austria made a show of great tolerance, and even sought to 
impel the other States to similar leniency. But the Hanse Towns 
expelled the Jews, Frankfort imposed restrictive laws, and then 
Austria, too, enacted special decrees, and Prussia followed suit. 
The Tyrol and certain villages in Bohemia and Moravia were closed 
to the Jews ; liberty of trade and residence in the rest of the country 
was hampered ; and the Ghetto emerged. The eloquent memorial 
on behalf of the Jews presented by the English enthusiast, Lewis 
Way, to the Congress (181S) at Aix, of the Sovereigns of Russia, 
Austria, and Prussia simply produced a polite acknowledgment. 

The reaction reached a disastrous climax early in the year ISID, 
when a series of attacks broke out against the Jews of Germany, 
accompanied by the mediaeval features of pillage, massacre, and 
expulsion. Starting at Wiirzburg, the riots spread to Frankfort, 
Bamberg, Darmstadt, Bayreuth, Diisseldorf, and Heidelberg. The 
authorities either remained passive or encouraged the populace. 
Even in C^openhagen an attack was made by the mob, but it was 
soon suppressed by the better classes. The " Hep, Hep ! Persecu- 
tion," as it is known, culminated in the appearance of Hundt's 
pamphlet ("Mirror of the Jews"), which advocated a general 
slaughter of the Jews. 

Notes : — 

" In the period between 1815 and 1817 there were no less than 
21 territorial Jews' laws in the eight provinces of the Prussian State. 
of which each one had to be observed by a part of the Jews. {Jewish 
Eneyclopcedia, v., p. (j.">l)." 

The Napoleonic law suspending the commercial freedom of the 
Jews of Alsace expired in ]818, and was not renewed. 

Note that it was on the initiative of Lewis Way that the " liOn- 
don Society for the Promotion of Christianity among the Jews " 
was founded in 1807. 

The cry " Hep, Hep ! " is supposed by some to have been used 
by the Crusaders in their attacks on the Jews, but it probably first 
arose in the Frankfort riot of 1819. Besides the meaning given by 
Graetz (Hierosolyma est perdita ^Jerusalem is destroyed), the 
term is derived by some from " Hab, hab ! " and by others is regarded 
as a contraction of Hebraer. The German riots in 181U present a 
remarkable similarity to the i)0(jrom$ in Russia to-day, 


With regard to Graetz's remark (p. 566) about the Rothschilds 
thinking of leaving Frankfort on account of the riot, it should be 
noted that twenty years before this event Nathan Meyer Rothschild, 
third son of Meyer Amschel Rothschild, the founder of the famous 
family, left for England, and after living in Manchester for a few 
years (from 1798), settled in London in 1804 as a naturalised subject. 
He was the grandfather of the present Lord Rothschild. The old 
Rothschild house in the Frankfort Judengasse can be seen to this 
day, though in a rather renovated condition ; it is kept as a family 
museum. No traces are left of the original character of the Juden- 
gasse, which now bears the name of Borne Strasse, and has electric 
trams running through it. 

It is a sad reflection that neither Varnhagen von Ense (who 
was in a position of influence) and his wife Rahel Levin, nor Jean 
Paul Richter, made any protest against the Jewish persecutions. 
On the other hand, the Cortes of Portugal, repenting the mediaeval 
intolerance, proposed to re-admit the banished Jews. 

Recommended Reading : — 

See the article on " Hep ! Hep ! " in the Jeuish Ennjclopci'dia 
by Joseph Jacobs, and also the article on Germany. 

IX.— BORNE AND HEINE, 1319— 18B0. 

Graetz, vol. v., ch. xiv. 

The justice of including an account of Borne and Heine in a 
Jewish history is frequently disputed owing to the apostasy of those 
gifted sons of Israel. Graetz defends such inclusion on the ground 
that their adoption of Christianity was merely formal and quite 
insincere, and that throughout their literary career they both dis- 
played characteristics that are essentially Jewish. In other words, 
the ephemeral act of baptism, being unaccompanied by any change 
of faith, is altogether overshadowed by a lifelong activity, in which 
the mental qualities inherited with Jewish birth are in constant 
evidence. This may be called a plea resting on a psychological 
basis. But the plea can be supplied with a much stronger basis — 
that of history itself, consisting in the fact that the ultimate effect 
of the vigorous dissemination of their hberal ideas by Borne and 
Heine was the rise of the party of " Young Germany," which inau- 
gurated an era of broader toleration for the Jew. Had this end 
been achieved by the activity of professing Christians, Jewish 
historv would not have failed to record their labours. As the 


instruments in the present case were only nominal Christians but 
Jews in almost every other sense, an account of their activity is 
certainly not less j ustifiable : for history must trace events to their 
causes and describe them, however reprehensible the personal 
embodiments of those causes may be from a reUgious point of view. 
But the inclusion of the names of Borne and Heine is by no means 
to be regarded as an apologia for their apostasy — an act which their 
fame does not atone, but only throws into repellent relief. 

Borne was baptised at the age of thirty-two (1818), Heine at 
that of twenty-six (1825). Neither was troubled about the doctrines 
of Judaism : both were affected only by the unsesthetic exterior of 
the Jewry of their environment. But the effective stimulus in the 
case of both was the hope of materially improving their position in 
intolerant Germany : a hope that was frustrated. Both, again, 
came under the influence of the salon of Rahel Levin, which not 
only inspired them with prejudice against Jewr}^, but sharpened 
their satire against Christendom. Borne was more of the politician, 
Heine more of the poet ; to this difference was probably due Heine's 
greater love for his people, for the love of his later years was much 
stronger and more reasoned than the hatred of his youth. In 
Heine there was a constant conflict between the Hebrew ideal of the 
morally good and the Hellenist ideal of the physically beautiful. 
Borne, however, was not concerned with abstract speculation, and 
was wholly animated by a passion for liberty. 

Notes : — 

Borne' s chief writings were Monographie der deutschen Poet 
Schnecke (1821) and Brief e aus Paris (1830). 

The name of Borne has been given to the former Judencjasse 
in Frankfort, where he was born. 

Borne settled in Paris in 1830, Heine in 1831. 

" Heine constantly strove to act the same part of mediator 
between French and German culture as the Spanish Jews had acted 
between the Christians and Moors of Spain. In particular he 
collaborated with Ludwig Borne, 'though not in direct association 
with him, in the attempt to create an intellectual party in German 
which would apply to German institutions and conceptions the 
freedom and force of French revolutionary ideas. By this means 
the two helped to create the party of ' Young Germany ' in litera- 
ture and politics {Jeirish Encydopfedia, vi., p. 32<'^)." 


Apart from his " Confessions," Heine's Jewish sympathies are 
most strikingly shown in liis " Almansor," " The Rabbi of Bach- 
arach," and " Romanzero." The second of these is a brilliant 
fragment of a romance, dealing with the persecution of the Jews by 
the Crusaders. " Romanzero " consists of three distinct poems 
dealing with Jehuda Halevi, a Talmudical Disputation, and " Prin- 
cess Sabbath." The finely conceived presentment of Jehuda 
Halevi was doubtless drawn from the Religiose Poesie der Juden in 
Spanien of Michael Sachs. 

Heine's bitterest saying about Judaism was : " Judaism is not 
a religion ; it is a misfortune." It is another misfortune that Heine 
should have written this. 

Recommended Readini/ : — 

The best study of Borne and Heine will be found in their own 

There is an excellent life of Heine in the Great Writers series 
(Walter Scott) by William Sharp, containing a full bibliography. 
From this it will be seen that all Heine's works have been translated 
into English. 

The articles on Burne and Heine in the Jewish Enclyclojxedia 
are both good reading. In that on Heine (by Joseph Jacobs) the 
year of birth is wrongly given as 1797 ; it should be \1W. 

Read also Zangwill's " From a Mattress Grave " (in Dreamers 
of the Ghetto) ; Matthew Arnold, Essays on Criticism, 1st ed., pp. 
179 — 183 ; Lady Magnus, Jewish Portraits, pp. 32 — 5(5. 


Craetz, vol. v., ch. xv. 

This chapter is concerned with the inner religious development 
of German Jewry, and narrates the beginnings of the Reform move- 
ment. The pioneer of this movement was Israel Jacobson, who, 
as President of the Consistory in W^estphalia, introduced German 
sermons and German prayers and hymns into the synagogue service, 
and also borrowed from the Christian Church the ceremony of 
confession of faith. On the downfall of the Westphalian Kingdom 
Jacobson moved (1815) to Berlin, and owing to his efforts a private 
synagogue with an organ was opened. But by order of Frederick 
William HI. the synagogue was soon closed, as being schismatic, 


Firmer foundations for Roform were then laid in Hamburg, 
where the Reform Temple Union was established in 1818. The 
preacher, Kiev, introduced the Jacobson reforms and excised from 
the prayer-book references to a belief in the coming of the Messiah. 
Although the innovations met with no favour from the German 
Rabbis, no determined opposition was made at first. But the 
Temple Union, securing the sanction of a Hungarian Rabbi (Aaron 
Chorin) and two Italian Rabbis (so-called), and the moral support 
of Lazarus Riesser, the Dayanim of Hamburg issued a protest, in 
which they were joined by many Rabbis of Prussia, Italy, Moravia, 
and Holland. The protest was directly chiefly against the omission 
of Messianic prayers and the introduction of an organ and German 
prayers. Nevertheless, in 1820 a branch Reform Synagogue was 
founded in Leipzig, whence the movement spread to other German 
towns (Breslau, Carlsruhe, c^c). 

An opposing force to Reform in Hamburg was soon created by 
the appointment in 1821, of Isaac Bernays (1792—1849) as Haham 
of the old congregation. Animated by a deeper sympathy for 
traditional Judaism than the school of Jacobson, he retained the 
old ritual forms though lie introduced the German sermon into the 
orthodox service. More of a scholar than the Reform preachers, he 
revealed the mission of Judaism as reflected in Jewish literature, 
and exercised a strong conservative influence over Hamburg Jewry. 
A similar influence was diffused in Vienna by Isaac Noah Mann- 
heimer (1793 — 1864), who also combined modern culture with a 
reverence for Jewish traditional forms. Appointed Rabbi in 1825, 
he retained Hebrew as the sole language of prayer and excluded the 
organ ; and to his eloquence as a preacher was added the power cf 
Sulzer as a Chazan to make the service attractive even for those of 
reform inclinations. The influence of the Vienna Synagogue 
extended to Galicia. and even to Italy and France. 

In Berlin the votaries of culture founded the " Society for 
Culture and Science among the Jews" (1819). the object of which 
was to retain within the fold the members of Young Israel, who 
were apt to be lured away by visions of material advancement. 
The three founders (Edward Gans, Moses Moser, and Leopold Zunz) 
proposed to instruct the Jewish youth in science, arts, and crafts ; 
but their activity was restricted to the delivery of lectures and the 
publication of a journal, in which their views on Judaism were 
coloured and confused by Hegelian philosophy. The society soon 
collapsed, most of the members (including Gans) embracing 
Christianity. Moser openly advocated baptism ; Zunz alone 
remained faithful to the last. 


Notes :~ 

Bernays was the first Rabbi who had a scientific education, 
having studied at the University of Wiirzburg. He preferred to be 
called Haham (although attached to an Ashkenazi congregation) 
instead of Rabbi, because the latter title had sunk in popular esteem. 
He converted the Talmud Torah School of Hamburg from a religion 
class into an efficient elementary public school. His most dis- 
tinguished pupil was Samson Raphael Hirsch, the well-known leader 
of modern orthodoxy. 

The person alluded to by Graetz (p. G23) as " u man who has 
grown grey in making researches and who is still among the living," 
was Leopold Zunz, who died in 1887. He is named as " one of the 
Triumvirate of the Berlin Society of Culture " on p. (')f)."3. Zunz 
was editor of the journal issued by the ill-fated Society. 

Edward Gans adopted Christianity in 1825 ; the following year 
he was appointed associate-professor in the juridical faculty of the 
University of Berlin, and in 1828 he became professor. 

Recommended Reading : — 

On the early history of the Reform Movement see the article 
by Rev. Dr. I). Pliilipson, " The Beginnings of the Reform Move- 
ment in Judaism," Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. xv., pp. 475 — 521 
(April, 190.j). Subsequent articles on the movement by the same 
writer appeared as follows : — Second article, J.Q.R. xvi., ."K) — 72 
(October, 1903) ; third article, xvi., -185—52-1: (April, 1904) ; fourth 
article, xvii., 307 — 353 (January, 1905). 

On Bernays, Mannheimer, and Gans, see the articles in the 
Jeivisk Encyclcpwdia. 


Graetz, vol. v., ch. xvi. 

With the exception of the interlude on poHtical emancipation 
in France and Germany, this chapter more properly belongs to the 
liistory of Jewish literature ; but in so far as it unfolds the intel- 
lectual development of Jewry it is quite germane. By " Jewish 
history " Graetz understands all manifestations of Jewish activity — 
not only social, economic, and political, but also religious and 

(1.) Tlio political equality of tlio .Tows of Franco was finally 
placed on a firm and lasting liasis in IX'M (following upon the Revo- 
lution of July, IS.iO), under Louis Phili])po, by a law enacting that 
the Rabbis should receive part of their salary from the national 
exchequer, and that the Jewish theological seminary in Metz should 
be recognised as a State institution. 

The first determined Jewish champion of the emancipation of 
his people in Germany was Gabriel Riesser (1806 — 1860). His 
efforts were supported by the party of Young Germany, which 
espoused the cause of Jewish equality and religious liberty. The 
Electorate of Hesse was the first Gorman province to legalise tlu^ 
emancipation of the Jews (1820). 

(2.) Still deprived of civic equality, the scholars of German 
Jewry began to make scientific research into the history of their 
peo})le from the earliest times, and thus strengthened the self- 
consciousness and self- reliance of the rising generation. They 
revealed the continuance of Jewish life and activity from Bible 
times and the hereditary forces of durability such continuance 
implied, and thus not only inspired their co-religionists with pride 
in their past but compelled the admiration of the Gentile world. 
Moreover, they unearthed the intellectual treasures that had accu- 
mulated through the centuries, and thus provided the Jewish mind 
with a Jewish literature to serve not only as a study but as a stimulus. 

The first efforts in this direction were made by Solomon Lowi- 
sohn (1780—1822) and Isaac Marcus Jost (1703— 18(i0), and more 
serious contributions were made by the Galicians, Nachman Kroch- 
mal (1785—1840) and Solomon \judah Rapoport (r7;»0— 1S67), 
who laid the historical foundations of Jewish scholarship. But the 
claim to be the father and founder of this Renaissance Movement, 
based not only upon the importance of his achievements but also 
upon the far-reaching extent of his influence, must be accorded to 
Leopold Zunz (179-1 — 1887). The appearance of his Liturgical 
Hontilies of the Jews in 18:>2 is a landmark not only in Jewish litera- 
ture but also in Jewish history. 

The Gahcian group of scholars had as their organ the Hebrew 
journal, Kerem Chemed (Desirable Vineyard), which also contained 
contributions from Zunz and Michael Sachs in Germany,', and 
Samuel David Luzzatto in Italy. Their most brilliant spirit was 
Isaac Erter (1702 — 1^")!), the satirist, who scourged the superstition 
of the Chassidim with tlie pen of Isaiah. In Germany appeared the 
Wissenschajtliche Zcitscknft fiir Jildische Theologie, the editor of 
which, Abraham Geiger (1810 — 1874), was one of the most important 


exponents of Reform. The first serious and scliolarly attempt to 
combat the Reform tendency was made by Samson Raphael Hirsch 
witli liis Nineteen Letters on Judaism (1S:]()). 

Notes : — 

Jost's two principal works are Geschichte der Israeliten, which 
is almost confined to the purely political history of the Jews, and 
Geschichte des Judenthums, which deals with their religious and 
literary development. 

The term " Jewish Science " is given to the scientific researcli 
into the history, literature, and religion of the Jews, which began 
in this period with Zunz and his contemporaries, and has hajipily 
continued ever since. 

Geiger, besides being a Reform leader, was an original and 
fertile writer — " one of the pathfinders of the science of Judaism." 
He began his career with an essay on Mohammed's borrowings 
from Judaism, which is still of value. His greatest work was on 
the " Primitive Text and Translations of the Bible." He also 
wrote on Jehuda Halevi, the Spanish and Italian Jewish poets, the 
history of exegesis, of Jewish apologetics, and of Jewish ])hilosophy. 
For more than twenty years he was Rabbi at Breslau (1840 — 18():j), 
and he spent his last years in Berlin as Rabbi and as lecturer at the 
Hochschule (an institute for the advanced study of Jewish Science 
and training of ministers). 

Hirsch and Geiger, who were radically opposed to one another 
in their religious views, had been fellow-students at Bonn Univer- 
sity. The Nineteen Letters of Hirsch made a powerful impression 
on Graetz, who was only nineteen when the work was published, 
and the future historian became a resident pupil of the orthodox 
Rabbi (18:37-1840) in Frankfort. 

Recommended Beading : — 

On Krochmal see the essay by Schechter in his Studies in 

On Isaac Erter see the article by Rev. Dr. J. Chot;cner. Jcirish 
Quarterly Review, ii., p. 106 (18!)1). 

On Joseph Perles, the promoter of modern education in Galicia, 
see article by Prof. W. Bacher, Jewish Quarterly Review, vii., 1 — 2'i 

On Leopold Zunz see tlic .u'ticle by the late Lector L H. Weiss, 
Jewish Quarterlji Review, vii., 365 — 3'J7 (1895). Read also the 
article by Rev. Dr. A. Lowy, in the Miscellany of Hebrew Literature, 
vol. i., L51 — 1()(), which is followed by a translation of the chapter 
in Zunz's Si/nagogal Poetry of the Middle Ages on " The Sufferings 
of the Jews." A quotation fi'om this chapter heads one of the 
chapters in George Eliot's Daniel Deronda. 

On Samson Raphael Hirsch see the essay by Dr. S. A. Hirsch 
in his Book of Essays. A translation of the Nineteen Letters of Ben 
Uziel by Dr. B. Drachman has been published by Funk and Wagnalls 
(44, Fleet Street, E.G., 1891)). 


Graetz, vol. v., ch. xvii. 

From the peaceful spectacle of scholarly activity in tlie previous 
cliapter Ave are now plunged into the mediaeval terrors of the Blood 
Accusation. There was a mixture of religious and political hostility 
in the origin of the Damascus affair, but in its subsequent course 
the political element was predominant, and every European Govern- 
ment was concerned in its solution. The martyrdom of the Jews 
of Damascus had at least one favourable result of lasting effect ; it 
created a feeling of solidarity between the Jews of Europe and their 
brethren in the East, whose educational needs and religious liberty 
ultimately became tlie voluntary charge of representative bodies 
in Paris, London, and Vienna. 

The accusation arose through the sudden disappearance of a 
Capuchin monk. Father Thomas, and his servant, in Damascus, in 
February, 1840. It was known that the Turk with whom the monk 
had quarrelled shortly before had committed suicide, but the murder 
of the missing persons was laid at the door of the Jews, who were 
accused of obtaining the blood for use on Passover — six weeks after.- 
The local French consul, Ratti Menton, was the most furious in 
persecuting the Jews so as to obtain a forced confession ; his efforts 
were aided by Sherif Pasha, Governor of Damascus, and Mehemet 
Ali, Pasha of Egypt. But despite the imprisonment and torture of 
several distinguished members of the community, the destroying of 
Jewish houses, and the starving of children so as to extort informa- 
tion from their mothers, no confession or proof of guilt was forth- 

In Rhodes a similar accusation was made against the Jews on 
the discovery of the dead body of a Greek boy who had hanged 


himself. Here also many Jews were arrested and tortured. In 
Khenisli Prussia there was another outbreak, but the utter baseless- 
ness of the charge was so patent — the suspected victim being alive 
— that the agitation was promptly suppressed. 

A report of the Damascus affair appearing in the French press, 
Adolphe Cremieux (1706 — 1880) resolved to defend his co-religionists, 
and obtained from Louis Philippe a promise to investigate the matter. 
• — a promise that came to nought. In England Moses Montefiore, 
Baron Nathaniel Rothschild, and others, induced Palmerston to 
send instructions to the English Ambassador at Constantinople 
and the Consul at Alexandria, to cause the barbarities to cease. 
The Austrian Consul at Damascus, Merlato, the only local official 
on the side of the Jews throughout the affair, supplied Metternich 
with a faithful report, whereupon the latter bestirred himself in the 
Jewish cause, and relief came visibly nearer. 

The Sultan of Turkey ordered a revision of the trial of the 
Rhodes affair, the result of which Avas that tlie Governor of the 
island was deposed, and the Jews were acquitted and awarded 
damages. Mehemet Ali, pressed by iMetternich, appointed a tri- 
bunal consisting of the consuls of England, Austria, Russia, and 
Prussia, to deal with the Damascus affair ; but Thiers, to save the 
dignity of France, ordered Mehemet Ali to suspend the tribunal. 
Hence, the only course left was for some European Jews of inliuence 
to plead in person before the Pasha of Egypt. 

Encouraged by the enthusiastic meeting at tlie Mansion House 
and the good- will of most of the European governments, 
Montefiore and Adolphe Cremieux set forth as emissaries to Egypt, 
accompanied by Solomon Munlc, the Orientalist, as interpreter. 
They arrived in Cairo on August 4th, and at once laid their petition 
before Mehemet Ali. After tliree weeks of ceaseless activity on the 
part of the emissaries, the vacillating Pasha ordered the Jewish 
prisoners to be liberated ; four had already died ; the nine survivors 
were released. At this juncture Mehemet Ali had to yield Syria 
and Crete to Turkey, whereupon Montefiore obtained from the 
Sultan a Firman declaring the Blood Accusation groundless. On 
a charge of treason the Governor of Damascus was dragged in chains 
to Cairo and executed. 

Notes : — 

The Damascus aft'air had two important results of an intellectual 
character, though of (juite a different order. In tlie first place, 
Cremieux and Munk, seeing the ignorance in which the Jews of 


Egy])t were sunk, founcLnl scliools in Alexandria and Cairo for the 
education of tlic children, and thus sowed the seeds from which 
afterwards sprang the Alliance Israelite Universelle. Secondly, 
Munk was enabled by his visit to Egypt to make valuable researches 
into the Arabic literature of the. Jews in the middle ages, more 
especially into the writings of Maimonides, and to show the debt of 
Europe to mediaeval Jewish philosophy. It was he who discovered 
the identity of Avicebron, supposed for centuries to have been a 
Christian philosopher, with Ibn Gabirol, the Jewish philosopher of 

(fraetz states (p. 701) that the Jews were attacked in the French 
and German newspapers in connection with the Damascus affair, 
but makes no reference to the anonymous writer in the Times, who 
asserted that the accusation was likely to be true, as the ritual use 
of blood for the Passover celebration was prescribed in the Talmud. 
An effective refutation of this assertion, in a scholarly letter of more 
than two columns in length, was written by Professor Theodores, 
of Owens College, Manchester. This letter, in pamphlet form, may 
be seen at the British Museum. 

RecouDiiended Reading : — 

On the life of Sir Moses Montefiore see Mr. Lucien Wolfs " Cen- 
tennial Biography" (1884-, Murray), and also Dr. L. Loewe, Diaries 
of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore (1890, Griffith, Farran). 

On the Damascus affair see David Salomons, An Account of the 
Recent Persecution of the Jeics at Damascus (1810, Longmans), and 
Dr. li. Loewe, Efes Damim — Groundlessness of the Blood Accusation, 
translated from the Hebrew of Isaac B. Levinsohn (18-11, Luzac). 

On the history and origin of the Blood Accusation see the 
excellent article by Prof. H. L. Strack in Jewish Encyclopaedia, iii., 
•2(30— 2G6. 

On the life of Cremieux see the article in Jewish Encyclopccdia iv. 


Graetz, vol. v., ch. xviii. 

Tliis final chapter deals with a variety of subjects, chief of 
which are the continued development of the Reform movement, the 
growth of political emancipation, and the founding of tlieological 
colleges and of politico-philanthropic associations. 


The Reform movement received only a momentarv stimulus 
from the "Frankfort Society of Friends of Reform" (1840), which 
had a bold policy but a brief career. A new factor appeared in the 
First Rabbinical Conference, which met at Brunswick in 1844, 
under the presidency of Samuel Holdheim (1806 — 1860), Chief Rabbi 
of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The latter was the most radical of rJl 
Reformers ; he advocated the suppression of everything in Judaism 
that possessed a national or political character, such as the Saturday 
Sabbath, the Hebrew language, the marriage laws, and the Messianic 
hope. At the Second Rabbinical Conference in Frankfort (1845), 
Zechariah Frankel (1801 — 1875) appeared as leader of the Orthodox 
party, and opposed the proposals of Holdheim. In 1846 Holdheim 
consecrated the Berlin Reform Temple, where the worshippers sat 
bare-headed, Hebrew was reduced to a minimum, and the Sabbath 
service was transferred to Sunday. 

But a vigorous opponent of Holdheim arose in Michael Sachs 
(1808 — 1864), the eloquent preacher of the Berlin Congregation, 
who charmed many Reformers to his own synagogue by his brilliant 
oiatory. Sachs also made many important contributions to Jewisli 
literature, of which the best known is his " Religious Poetry of the 
Jews in Spain." Tn the literary activity that distinguished the 
middle of last century the Talmud was subjected to scientific study, 
and impartial Christian scholars, such as Ewald, revealed the early 
history of the Jews in its true light. 

The Revolutions of 1848 brought civil emancipation to the 
Jews in Germany. Austria, and Italy, and consolidated the position 
of the Jews in France. England rv^mained isolated ; the internal 
struggle for complete emancipation found its first success in the 
election of Jews to municipal distinctions. But the right to sit in 
Parliament was not conceded till 1858, after a struggle of nearly oO 
3'^ears, when Baron Lionel de Rothschild took his seat as member 
for the City of London. In America the civil equality of the Jews 
had become an established fact after the War of Independence, 

The first Jewish theological college to be founded and conducted 
on modern scientific principles was that of Breslau, which was 
opened in 1854. Graetz was appointed on the staff as lecturer in 
Jewish history and Biblical exegesis, and he continued in this position 
until his death in 18'.)1. Following the example of Breslau there 
were established seminaries in Berlin, Vienna, Buda-Pesth, Amster- 
dam, liondon, New York, and C*incinnati. 


In 1860 was founded the Alliance Israelite Universelle for tlic 
])urpose of succouring oppressed Jews in the East and improving 
their intellectual condition. With a view to co-operating in this 
work the Anglo-Jewish Association was founded in 1871, and a 
similar body — the Israelitische Allianz — was created in Vienna, to 
deal more especially with the condition of the Jews in Galicia. The 
.lews of Germany have founded the Hilfsverein with kindred 
objects, whilst in America the Independent Order B'nei Brith made 
a notable display of Jewish patriotism and political couraare in its 
action with regard to the Kishineff massacre of 1003. 

Notes : — 

This final chapter is inevitably miscellaneous in character, as 
there were so many developments in different directions during the 
period in question. 

It should be noted that Holdheim, the personification of Reform 
Judaism, scrupulously decided all questions of religious law according 
to the Rabbinical codes while Rabbi in Frankfort (1836 — 1840). . 

During his thirteen years of active life in Berlin, he wrote 
several text-books on the Jewish religion and a voluminous work- 
in Hebrew on the Rabbinical and Karaite interpretations of the 
marriage laws. 

Besides the two Rabbinical Conferences mentioned by Graetz, 
there was a third, held in Breslau in 1846. 

Graetz is unusually severe in dealing with those of his contem- 
poraries from whom he differed, especially the members of the 
Reform school such as Holdheim and Geiger. But with all his 
championing of the orthodox, even he himself was accused of heresy 
by this party because he had denied the personal character of the 
prophesied Messiah. 

Recommended Reading : — 

This chapter is defective in entirely overlooking the Jews of 
Russia. In his history of the Jews in the nineteenth century, Graetz 
regarded Germany as the centre of gravity of Jewry. Whatever 
important developments may have taken place there, the fact 
remains that Russia and Poland contain half the Jews in the world, 
and no Jewish history can be complete without an adequate ac('0unt 
of the conditions in those countries. See Dubnow's Jewish Histnrif 
pp. 147 — 155. On the extensive literature produced by Russian 


Jewry see the article on " Literature in the Ghetto," by Israel 
Cohen, in the Jewish Literary Annual for 1904. The best and fullest 
account of the history of the Jews in Kussia will be found in the 
Jewish Encydopcedia. 

As an antidote to Graetz's treatment of Holdheim read the 
article by Dr. Emil G. Hirsch in the Jewish Encyclopaedia. See also 
the article by the Rev. Dr. I. H. Ritter on " Samuel Holdheim : the 
Jewish Reformer," in the Jewish Quarterly Review, i., 202 — 215 

A good account of the Rabbinical Conferences has just been 
contributed by the Rev. Dr. D. Philipson to the Jewish Quarterly 
Review, July, 1905 (pp. 656—689). 

On the relations between the national and religious elements 
in Judaism, a subject of dispute rendered more frequent since the 
days of Holdheim by the advance of the Zionist movement, see the 
article on " National Judaism " by Lady Magnus, in Jewish Quarterly 
Review, i., pp. 353 — 358. (" Those who would dissociate the 
national from the religious, or the religious from the national element 
in Judaism, attempt the impossible.") See also Mr. C. G. Montefiore. 
" Nation or Religious Community ? " Jewish Quarterly Review, 
xii., 177 — 194 (January, 1900), or Transactions of Jewish Historical 
Society, iv., 1 — 15. The whole question is bound up with the theory 
of Zionism, on which see Mr. L Zangwill's article in Jewish Quarterly 
Review, April, 1905, in reply to Mr. Lucien Wolf on " The Zionist 
Peril " in the same Review, October, 1904. See also " Zionism : 
its History and its Jms," by Dr. Max Nordau (English Zionist 
Federation, 3, Commercial Street, E.). 

On the struggle for political emancipation in England and the 
story of progress in this country, see Picciotto's Sketches of Anglo- 
Jewish History, or the article on " England " by Mr. Joseph Jacobs 
in Jeivish Encyclopcedia, v. 

On the history of Anti-Semitism see the article by Mr. Lucieii 
Wolf in the Encyclopwdia Britannica. 

On the life and work of Graetz sec the article by Mr. Israel 
.Abrahams, in Jewish Quarterly Review, iv., p. 165, followed by a 
chronological list of the historian's writings ; and also the article 
in the Jewish Encyclopcsdia. 

IfDampetcab a St Jobu's moo'o Jewisb 
Xiteiarv Society. 

SESSION 1905—6. 







Saturday, Nov. 11th. First Lecture. 

Characteristics of Emopean Jewry in First Half of Eighteenth Century — 
.\clvent of Moses ilendelssohn — Literary and Philosophical Activity — Friend- 
ship with Lessiiig — Mendelssohn's Tlireefold Influence : Religious, Literarj', 
I'oUtical — Translation of Pentateuch — Hebrew Litterateurs — Dohm's 
Pamplilet — Jud»o-Christian Salons — P>nrne and Heine — Results of 
Mendelssohnian Enlightenment. 
Xov. 25th. Second Lecture. 


The French Revolution— Jews of Alsace — Paris Synhedrion — Emancipa- 
tion in Holland — Struggle in Germany and Austria — Gabriel Riesser — 
Revolutions of 1830 and 1848— Emancipation in England — Struggle in 

Dec. 9th. Third Lecture. 

Beginnings of Reform — Hamburg Preform Temple — Conservative Forces 
— Frankfort Society of Friends of Reform — Rabbinical Conferences (1844-6) 
^-Geiger and Holdheim— Berhn Reform Temple — Reform in England and 

Deo. 23rd. Fourth Lecture. 

The Term " Jewish Science " — Beginnings of Historical Research — 
Leopold Zunz — The Galician School : Krochmal, Rajioport, Erter — Samuel 
David Luzzatto — Abraham Geiger — Sachs : " Religious Poetry of the Jews 
in Spain " — ^^Munk — Graetz — Reviews and Societies. 

Jan. 6th. Fifth Lecture. 

Oppressive Legislation in Eighteenth Century — The " Hep, Hep " Riots 
of 1819 — Blood Accusation at Damascus and Rhodes (1840) — Crcmieux and 
-Montefiore— Persecution in Russia and Roumania — Anti-Semitism. 

Jan. 20th. Sixth Lecture. 

Survey of Modern JewTy — Activity in Western Europe — The " American 
Hegemony " — Colonial Expansion — Fo\mding of Theological Seminaries — A 
Modern CouDnunity — Guardianshij) of the Orient — Activity of Politico- 
Kducational Associations — Jewish Influences in Modern Thought — Contribu- 
tions to Literature, Science, Art — Contrary Tendencies of Assimilation and 
Nationalism — The Jewish Question. 

The Lectures u-ill he given at the Board Room oj the Uampstead Synagogue nf 

3.30 p.m. 


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